Addiction, Abalone, the Keto Diet, and more! | Simply Science

Addiction, Abalone, the Keto Diet, and more! | Simply Science


♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪
>>HELLO AND WELCOME ONCE
AGAIN TO SIMPLY SCIENCE.
TODAY WE ARE AT THE HUNTER’S
POINT SOUTH PARK IN LONG ISLAND
CITY, SURROUNDED BY THESE TALL
BUILDINGS.
WE OFTEN FORGET THAT OUTSIDE THE
STEEL CANYONS WE ARE SURROUNDED
BY RIVERS AND OCEANS FULL OF
MARINE LIFE.
LATER ON I WILL INTRODUCE YOU TO
A MARINE BIOLOGIST WHO HAS MADE
INCREDIBLE DISCOVERIES.
HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF A
FLASHLIGHT FISH?
A LOT OF PEOPLE USE THE TERM
ADDICTED KIND OF LOOSELY.
OH, I’M ADDICTED TO SODA —
OH, I’M ADDICTED TO WATCHING
GAME OF THRONES.
BUT WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN SOMETHING WE REALLY
LOVE, EVEN CRAVE AND A TRUE
ADDICTION?
CAROL ANN RIDDELL DID SOME
RESEARCH.
>>LET’S START WITH SOME
COLD, HARD FACTS.
I’M HOOKED ON GUMMY FISH.
WHEN THESE CHEWY LITTLE GUPPIES
ARE IN THE KITCHEN, I WON’T STOP
THINKING ABOUT THEM UNTIL I GRAB
A HANDFUL, OR SEVERAL.
AND APPARENTLY I’M NOT ALONE.
>>ANY CANDY.
MAYBE FIVE TIMES A WEEK I HAVE
TO EAT SOME TYPE OF CANDY.
>>I’M WITH YOU.
>>I SHOULDN’T THOUGH IT’S BAD
FOR MY BRACES.
>>FOR ME IT’S GATORADE AND
GOBSTOPPERS.
GATORADE KEEPS ME HYDRATED AND
GOBSTOPPERS JUST KEEP ME GOING.
>>BUT THERE’S A BIG DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN WHAT MAY BE
A CRAVING OR EVEN A
BAD HABIT AND WHAT IS A TRUE,
LIFE-CHANGING ADDICTION.
AND THAT DIFFERENCE CAN BE
EXPLAINED WITH SCIENCE.
SCOTT EWING SPECIALIZES IS
PURSUING A PHD IN CLINICAL
PSYCHOLOGY, HE SPECIALIZES IN
ADDICTION RESEARCH AND TEACHES
AT QUEENS COLLEGE.
>>ALL OF THESE THINGS ACT ON A
CERTAIN PART OF OUR BRAIN CALLED
THE REWARD SYSTEM, THE REWARD
CIRCUIT.
THESE ARE STRUCTURES WITHIN THE
BRAIN THAT ARE ACTIVATED WHEN WE
ARE DOING SOMETHING THAT WE
LIKE.
IT COULD BE FOOD, SEX, GAMBLING
OR IT COULD BE DRUGS OF ABUSE.
IT SERVES A VERY IMPORTANT
FUNCTION FOR SURVIVAL.
IF WE DIDN’T FEEL THAT REWARD,
THAT MOTIVATION FOR FOOD OR
SEX WE MIGHT STARVE, WE MIGHT
NOT PROCREATE.
THINGS LIKE FOOD CAN ACTIVATE
THAT SYSTEM A LITTLE BIT.
DRUGS OF ABUSE —
IT’S LIKE PEDAL TO THE METAL,
IT WILL FULLY ACTIVATE THAT
SYSTEM IN A CHEMICAL, UNNATURAL
WAY.
>>AS SCOTT EXPLAINS IT’S
IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE
BRAIN CAN CHANGE IN ADDICTION,
TO SOME DEGREE RE-WIRING ITSELF
TO DEMAND MORE OF THE
SUBSTANCE OR BEHAVIOR.
WHEN PEOPLE TRULY SUFFER FROM
ADDICTION, SIMPLY STOPPING IS
NOT SO EASY.
>>ON A VERY NEUROLOGICAL,
CHEMICAL LEVEL THESE SUBSTANCES
CHANGE THE BRAIN IN WAYS THAT
MAKE IT DIFFICULT AND SOMETIMES
IMPOSSIBLE TO PULL BACK.
A LOT OF DRUGS OF ABUSE AND
OTHER THINGS LIKE GAMBLING AND
SEX, THEY CAN CAUSE CHANGES
WITHIN THE BRAIN THAT MAKE IT
MUCH MORE APPETIZING, MUCH MORE
MOTIVATING TO THAT PERSON AND
MUCH MORE DIFFICULT FOR THAT
PERSON TO ABSTAIN.
>>AND THE UNITED STATES HAS
A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CHALLENGE
WHEN IT COMES TO ALCOHOL AND
DRUG MISUSE.
THE OFFICE OF THE SURGEON
GENERAL SAYS THAT MORE THAN 27
MILLION PEOPLE IN THE UNITED
STATES REPORTED THAT THEY ARE
USING ILLICIT DRUGS OR MISUSING
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS AND NEARLY A
QUARTER OF ADULTS AND
ADOLESCENTS REPORTED BINGE
DRINKING IN THE PAST MONTH.
ALSO, THE ANNUAL ECONOMIC IMPACT
OF SUBSTANCE MISUSE IS ESTIMATED
TO BE $249 BILLION FOR ALCOHOL
MISUSE AND $193 BILLION FOR
ILLICIT DRUG USE.
>>THERE IS A LOT OF STIGMA,
A LOT OF MISUNDERSTANDING OF
PEOPLE WHO HAVE AN ADDICTION
WHEN VIEWED BY PEOPLE WHO HAVE
NEVER BEEN ADDICTED TO A
SUBSTANCE OR AN ACTIVITY.
>>BACK TO WHAT I SAID
EARLIER, IS IT AN ADDICTION?
NOT SO MUCH.
MORE LIKE A HABIT THAT IS HARD
TO BREAK.
ACTUAL ADDICTION IS SOMETHING
ELSE ENTIRELY.
FROM SCOTT’S PERSPECTIVE,
WE COULD USE MORE COMPASSION
WHEN CONFRONTING IT.
>>THOSE THAT MIGHT BE SUFFERING
FROM ADDICTION IT’S JUST NOT AS
EASY AS SAYING, I’LL JUST STOP.
IT’S HARDER THAN THAT.
>>I’M CAROL ANN RIDDELL
FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE.

>>THE KETO DIET IS THE LATEST
DIET CRAZE.
AND THE KEY TO FINDING OUT MORE
ABOUT IT IS OUR SUSAN JHUN.
>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.
>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.
>>THE KETOGENIC DIET.
>>IT’S THE NEWEST DIET
CRAZE, THAT’S ALL THE RAGE.
>>I GOT INTO THE BEST SHAPE OF
MY LIFE WITH THE DIET.
>>THERE’S NO QUESTION THAT
THE KETO DIET IS POPULAR BUT
DOES IT REALLY WORK?
WE WILL START BY TAKING A LOOK
AT HOW IT WORKS.
THE KEY TO KETO IS BURNING FAT
INSTEAD OF SUGAR.
>>THE KETOGENIC DIET IS WHEN
THE BODY USES FAT AS FUEL
INSTEAD OF GLUCOSE.
SO, TO OBTAIN THAT, ONE MUST
STARVE THEIR BODY FROM
CARBOHYDRATES AND LIMIT IT TO NO
MORE THAN 50 GRAMS OF CARBS PER
DAY.
>>FORMER CUNY PROFESSOR AND
NUTRITIONIST, LORRAINE KEARNEY
SAYS THE HIGH FAT, LOW CARB
EATING PLAN PUTS THE BODY INTO
THE METABOLIC STATE OF KETOSIS,
WHEN THE BODY BEGINS TO BURN FAT
FOR ENERGY BECAUSE IT DOESN’T
HAVE ENOUGH CARBOHYDRATES TO
BURN.
DURING KETOSIS, THE LIVER
PRODUCES A TYPE OF ACID CALLED
KETONES, WHICH IS RELEASED IN
URINE AND INDICATES THAT FAT IS
BEING BURNED INSTEAD OF GLUCOSE.
THE KETOGENIC, OR KETO DIET
STRIVES TO INDUCE KETOSIS IN
ORDER TO BURN MORE FAT.
>>I WAS ABLE TO LOSE WEIGHT
REALLY FAST.
I GOT THE RESULTS I WANTED, I
GOT REALLY LEAN, I WAS LIKE
THOSE GUYS IN THE PICTURES.
>>AMATEUR BODYBUILDER
SCARLYN TRIED KETO FOR 3
MONTHS AND SAYS AT FIRST HE
EXPERIENCED WHAT’S KNOWN AS THE
KETO FLU, WHERE THE BODY MIMICS
THE SYMPTOMS OF THE FLU WHILE
ADJUSTING TO A DIET LACKING IN
CARBS.
BUT ONCE THOSE SYMPTOMS WENT
AWAY, VELOZ SAYS THE DIET WORKED
LIKE A CHARM, ALLOWING HIM TO
INDULGE IN ALL THE BACON AND FAT
HE WANTED WHILE LOSING WEIGHT.
BUT ULTIMATELY, VELOZ SAYS IT
WAS IMPOSSIBLE FOR HIM TO
SUSTAIN.
>>I WAS JUST FEELING LIKE A
ZOMBIE.
I COULDN’T EVEN WALK WELL, I WAS
JUST SO DIZZY.
I FELT LIKE I WAS MISSING
SOMETHING, I WAS LIKE WOW, MY
BODY’S NOT FUNCTIONING THE SAME.
>>AND THE NATURAL FRUITS
AND VEGGIES VELOZ LOVED TO EAT
WERE FORBIDDEN CARBS.
>>ONE OF THE THINGS THAT THE
KETO DIET DOES IS DEPRIVE
YOURSELF FROM EATING THINGS LIKE
BANANAS, APPLES, ORANGES.
>>YOU’RE ONLY GOING TO SEE
RESULTS FOR AS LONG AS YOU’RE
DOING THAT DIET.
A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO DO THE
KETOGENIC DIET, IT’S THAT QUICK
FIX, I’LL DO IT FOR TWO OR THREE
MONTHS AND THEN THEY STOP,
BECAUSE LIFE GETS IN THE WAY.
MAYBE IT’S KIDS, WORK, STRESS,
AND THEN OLD EATING HABITS COME
IN.
>>AND FOR SOME, KEARNEY
SAYS THE DIET CAN ACTUALLY BE
HARMFUL.
>>THE KETOGENIC DIET CAN BE
DANGEROUS FOR SOME PEOPLE,
ESPECIALLY FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE
DIABETIC.
SO, WHEN YOU ARE USING KETONES
AS FUEL, THE BODY DOESN’T
PRODUCE AS MUCH INSULIN, SO WHEN
THERE’S NOT ENOUGH INSULIN IN
THE BLOOD THAT CAN CAUSE AN
IMBALANCE OF ELECTROLYTES AS
WELL.
IF THE BODY IS IN A STATE OF
KETOSIS, THAT CAN TURN INTO
KETOACIDOSIS, THEN THERE’S A
BUILDUP OF ACIDITY IN THE BODY
AND CAN AFFECT OUR HEART HEALTH
AND MAY EVEN CAUSE DEATH.
>>KEARNEY SAYS ALL DIETS
INCLUDING THE KETO DIET ARE A
FORM OF THE ATKINS DIET, WHICH
LIMITS CARBS AND IS NOT ONLY
HARD TO SUSTAIN BUT MAY LEAD TO
A VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRIVATION
AND INDULGENCE.
>>THERE’S CAKE THAT COMES
AROUND AND IT’S LIKE NO, I CAN’T
HAVE IT, I’M ON A DIET.
THAT LEADS TO THOUGHTS AND
FEELINGS OF BEING DEPRIVED.
SO, WHEN YOU DO GO TO EAT THAT
PIECE OF CAKE, YOU MAY FIND THAT
YOU’RE HAVING TWO SLICES OF CAKE
OR THREE SLICES OF CAKE AND THEN
YOU’RE BACK TO SQUARE ONE, YOU
HAVE GUILT, YOU’RE LIKE WHY DID
I EAT ALL THIS FOOD AND YOU
START TO FEEL DEPRIVED AND IT
CREATES LIKE AN UNHEALTHY
RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD.
>>WHICH IS WHY KEARNEY SAYS
THE KEY TO A HEALTHY DIET IS
UNDERSTANDING THE WAY YOU RELATE
TO FOOD.
>>UNDERSTANDING THE HOWs AND
THE WHYs BEHIND YOUR EATING,
THAT IS WHERE YOU GET THE
LONG-TERM RESULTS.
THAT IS WHEN YOU DON’T EVEN HAVE
TO USE THE WORD DIET.
CLEAN, GOOD FOOD, WHOLE FOOD.
THERE IS A RIGHT RATIO OF CARBS
TO FATS TO PROTEIN.
>>BALANCE, WHICH MAY BE THE
WAY TO WIN THE BATTLE OF THE
BULGE.
FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M SUSAN
JHUN.
>>I HAD TWO PIECES OF CAKE
FOR BREAKFAST.
HOW COME I FEEL STRANGE?
CAN FOOD AFFECT YOUR MOOD?
>>LISA SASSON IS A REGISTERED
DIETITIAN AND ON THE CLINICAL
FACULTY AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY’S
DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD
STUDY.
SHE SAYS THE GOAL IS TO
JUMPSTART THE DAY WITH A PROPER
BREAKFAST.
>>HAVING A VERY SUGARY
BREAKFAST, A LOT OF ADDED
SUGARS, PASTRIES, SWEETS,
THAT CAN REALLY BRING YOUR
BLOOD LEVELS DOWN AND MAKE YOU
FEEL SLUGGISH AFTER A WHILE
BECAUSE THERE IS SO MUCH SUGAR
AND ALL THAT SUGAR RUSH GOES
RIGHT TO YOUR CELLS AND IT KEEPS
YOU AT A VERY LOW SUGAR LEVEL IN
YOUR BLOOD AND YOU FEEL HUNGRY
AND YOU DON’T FEEL THAT ALERT.
LET’S CHANGE THAT BREAKFAST.
LET’S HAVE COFFEE AND WHOLE
WHEAT TOAST WITH A SMEAR OF
PEANUT BUTTER AND A PIECE OF
FRUIT AND ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU
FEEL MORE ENERGETIC, MORE ALERT
BECAUSE YOU HAVE HEALTHY FATS,
HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES AND
PROTEIN AND YOUR BLOOD SUGAR
LEVEL IS GOING TO STABILIZE.
>>EVEN THOUGH SHE INCLUDED
COFFEE IN HER BREAKFAST MENU,
SHE SAYS WATCH THE CAFFEINE
INTAKE.
>>THE PROBLEM IS IF YOU DRINK
TOO MUCH COFFEE BECAUSE OF
CAFFEINE IT CAN MAKE YOU FEEL
REALLY JITTERY AND NERVOUS.
THAT CAN AFFECT YOUR MOOD.
>>THERE ARE OTHER DIETARY
CHANGES YOU CAN MAKE TO IMPROVE
HOW YOU FEEL INCLUDING GETTING
SOME OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS INTO
YOUR REGIMEN.
SOME STUDIES SAY THERE MAY BE A
LINK IN HOW SOME PEOPLE WHO
SUFFER FROM CLINICAL DEPRESSION
PROCESS OMEGA-3s.
>>OMEGA-3 IS REALLY IMPORTANT.
THE RESEARCH IS REALLY LINKED TO
DEPRESSION, CLINICAL DEPRESSION,
BUT PEOPLE SHOULD STILL BE
GETTING GOOD SOURCES OF OMEGA-3
FATTY ACIDS IN THEIR DIET
BECAUSE THERE MAY BE A LINK WITH
MOOD.
>>YOU CAN FIND THOSE OMEGA-3s
IN NUTS LIKE WALNUTS, FLAXSEED,
FISH LIKE SARDINES AND SOME
GREEN VEGETABLES.
WE HEAR A LOT ABOUT ADDING
VITAMIN B TO OUR DIET BUT SASSON
SAYS FOR THE VAST MAJORITY OF
US, THAT IS NOT NECESSARY,
BECAUSE IT IS ADDED IN
SO MANY PROCESSED FOODS
LIKE BREAD AND CEREAL.
ON THE SUBJECT OF CEREAL, SHE
SAYS KEEP THE KIDS OFF THE
BRIGHTLY COLORED PRODUCTS AT THE
STORE.
>>YOU SHOULDN’T BE EATING FOODS
THAT’S NEON GREEN AND SHOCKING
PINK.
HAVE LOTS OF COLORFUL FRUIT
AND VEGETABLES, THAT’S WHERE
A LOT OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS
ARE.
MAKE SURE YOU HAVE BALANCED
MEALS WITH A GOOD SOURCE OF
HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES LIKE
OATMEAL OR WHOLE-GRAINS,
BROWN RICE.
THESE ARE HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATES.
GOOD SOURCES OF HEALTHY PROTEIN
INCLUDING FISH, BEANS, HUMMUS,
EGGS, PEANUT BUTTER.
AND HEALTHY FATS,
AVOCADO, OLIVE OIL, NUTS.
YOU WILL FEEL GOOD, YOUR BLOOD
SUGAR LEVELS WILL BE STABLE AND
YOU ARE GOING TO FEEL BETTER.
>>THE BOTTOM LINE IS, THE
DECISIONS YOU MAKE ABOUT WHAT
YOU EAT OR PUT INTO YOUR TANK
OVER THE COURSE OF THE DAY COULD
HAVE A MAJOR IMPACT ON HOW YOU
FEEL AND YOUR MOOD OVERALL.

>>DAVID GRUBER IS A
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER AND
PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST AT
BARUCH COLLEGE.
I MET UP WITH HIM AT HIS LAB AND
WE TALKED ABOUT HIS TRAVELS IN
THE KINGDOM UNDER THE SEA.

>>I WAS ALWAYS INTERESTED IN
ANIMALS, INTERESTED IN LIFE AND
ALL FACETS OF LIFE.
I LOVE THE FACT THAT IT IS THESE
ANIMALS IN THE OCEAN, THESE
INCREDIBLY PRIMITIVE PREHISTORIC
ANIMALS THAT ACTUALLY HAVE
SECRETS THAT HELP US BETTER
UNDERSTAND OUR BRAIN, OUR
CONSCIOUSNESS AND FIGHT
DISEASES.
>>MEET DR. DAVID GRUBER.
HE IS A PRESIDENTIAL PROFESSOR
OF BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES.
HE IS ALSO A NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
EXPLORER, MARINE BIOLOGIST,
INVENTOR AND ADVENTURER.
>>IT WAS A RAW FASCINATION WITH
THE ENERGY OF THE OCEAN AND THE
MYSTERY — THERE.
>>MYSTERIES LIKE WHY
MANY DEEP-SEA CREATURES
GLOW-IN-THE-DARK.
>>BELOW 700 METERS THERE IS NO
SUNLIGHT.
BIOLUMINESCENCE IS THE MAIN FORM
OF COMMUNICATION.
ANIMALS ARE BLINKING.
>>BIOLUMINESCENCE REFERS TO
ANIMALS THAT GIVE OFF THEIR OWN
LIGHT, LIKE FIREFLIES.
THEY ACTUALLY PRODUCE THEIR OWN
PHOTONS.
THIS JELLYFISH IS AN EXAMPLE OF
BIOLUMINESCENCE.
SO IS ONE OF DAVID’S MORE RECENT
DISCOVERIES, FLASHLIGHT FISH WHO
USE THEIR GLOWING LIGHT TO
COORDINATE SCHOOLING TOGETHER.
THEN THERE ARE FLUORESCENT
ANIMALS WHO TAKE EXISTING LIGHT
AND CONVERT IT TO ANOTHER COLOR
LIKE THIS RARE SEA TURTLE AND
THIS SHARK THAT TURNS BLUE LIGHT
INTO A GLOWING NEON GREEN
THAT ONLY OTHER SHARKS CAN SEE.
>>BIOLUMINESCENCE IS BEING
USED IN CANCER RESEARCH BY
LIGHTING UP CELLS.
FOR INSTANCE, YOU COULD PUT A
BIOLUMINESCENT GENE ON A CANCER
GENE AND YOU COULD WATCH THAT
GENE GROW AND ESSENTIALLY WATCH
THE TUMOR METASTASIZE, AND THEN
YOU COULD ACTUALLY SEE WHAT KIND
OF DRUGS YOU ARE TRYING ON THIS
AND IT WILL ALLOW YOU, SINCE YOU
ARE LIGHTING UP THE TUMOR, YOU
CAN NOTICE, THIS DRUG IS
SHRINKING THE TUMOR.
>>THIS IS IN PRACTICE NOW?
>>THIS IS WIDELY IN PRACTICE.
WE ARE OFF THE COAST OF BRAZIL
AND WE ARE AT A DEPTH OF 630
METERS.
WE ARE TESTING OUT OUR SQUISHY
ROBOT ARM.
>>DR. GRUBER IS PART OF THE
TEAM THAT DEVELOPED A MORE
HUMANE WAY OF SAMPLING MARINE
LIFE USING SOFT ROBOTICS.
>>OUR PHILOSOPHY IS CAN WE USE
TECHNOLOGY TO BE GENTLE?
CAN WE USE TECHNOLOGY TO CONNECT
US TO NATURE?
OUR FIRST PROJECT WAS SQUISHY
ROBOT FINGERS.
WE BROUGHT THIS DOWN TO THE RED
SEA AND WE SHOWED THAT IT WORKS.
INSIDE THE SUBMARINE WE WILL
WEAR A GLOVE AND THE SQUISHY
ROBOT ARM WILL DO WHAT THE HAND
IS DOING.
THE IDEA OF THIS SQUISHY ROBOT
ARM IS A DELICATE WAY TO
INTERACT WITH DEEP MARINE LIFE.
>>WELL DONE.
>>AND THE LATEST
DEVELOPMENT FROM DR. GRUBER AND
HIS TEAM, A ROBOTIC ARM WITH
NOODLE LIKE FINGERS THAT GENTLY
CRADLES DELICATE MARINE LIFE
SUCH AS JELLYFISH THAT CAN THEN
BE STUDIED, SWABBED AND RELEASED
WITHOUT HARM.
>>I NEVER THOUGHT I WOULD BE
WORKING ALONGSIDE SOME OF THE
TOP ROBOTICISTS, SOME OF THE
TOP NEUROSCIENTISTS.
IT IS THIS IDEA THAT EVERYTHING
IS CONNECTED.
ALL LIFE IS CONNECTED.
>>BARRY MITCHELL FOR SIMPLY
SCIENCE.
>>WE EAT A LOT OF FISH, SO MUCH
THAT DEMAND IS EXCEEDING SUPPLY.
THAT IS CALLED UNSUSTAINABILITY.
HOW DO WE PRODUCE MORE FISH IN A
HELPFUL MANNER?
WE SENT ANDREW FALZON TO HAWAII
TO DO A STORY ABOUT AQUACULTURE,
FISH FARMING.
>>THIS IS ABALONE.
ONE OF THE OCEAN’S GREATEST
DELICACIES READY TO SERVE AT ONE
OF THE WORLD’S MOST EXCLUSIVE
RESTAURANTS.
BUT WHAT MAKES THIS PLATE TRULY
SPECIAL IS THAT IT BEGAN ON AN
ABALONE FARM ALMOST 5,000 MILES
AWAY FROM NEW YORK CITY USING A
RECIPE THAT WAS ONE PART
CONSERVATION AND TWO PARTS
SCIENCE.
>>ABALONE DO LIVE IN THE WILD.
THEY’RE A COLD WATER ANIMAL.
BUT THEY’VE BEEN OVER-HARVESTED.
>>AND THAT’S WHY
BIOLOGISTS LIKE ASHLEY VAN
JETZER ARE FARMING THESE OCEAN
ODDITIES AT BIG ISLAND ABALONE
LOCATED ON THE KONA COAST IN
HAWAII.
IN 2015 MORE THAN 135,000 TONS
OF ABALONE WERE CONSUMED
WORLDWIDE.
IN THE PAST, NEARLY ALL OF THE
WORLD’S ABALONE WAS FISHED, BUT
IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, THAT HAS
CHANGED SIGNIFICANTLY BECAUSE
WILD POPULATIONS WERE
OVER-HARVESTED.
>>SO TO PRESERVE THEM AS A
SPECIES THERE ARE FARMS LIKE
OURS AROUND THE WORLD WHO
HAVE BEEN RAISING THEM PRIMARILY
FOR THE DINNER PLATES.
>>ABALONE ARE SEA SNAILS,
KNOWN FOR THEIR FLAT, IRIDESCENT
SHELLS.
DEMAND IS HIGH.
SUPPLY IS LOW.
THAT MAKES IT A PRICEY DELICACY
AROUND THE WORLD.
IN THE 1920s, IT WOULD HAVE
COST YOU ABOUT $28 A POUND IN
TODAY’S MONEY.
NOW?
HOW ABOUT $125 A POUND, AND IN
MOST PLACES AROUND THE WORLD,
ALMOST ALL ABALONE ARE ILLEGAL
TO HARVEST.
>>IF WE CAN EASE UP ON
COLLECTING, THEY CAN GET A
CHANCE TO REST AND EVEN BEGIN TO
REPAIR SOME OF THEIR
POPULATIONS.
>>BUT RAISING ABALONE
TAKES A LOT OF SPECIALIZED
RESOURCES.
THE SEA SNAILS EAT ABOUT 10% OF
THEIR BODY WEIGHT IN ALGAE EACH
DAY.
THEY PREFER THE RED KIND, SO BIG
ISLAND FARMS THAT TOO.
BUT PERHAPS THE MOST IMPORTANT
INGREDIENT IS THE WATER.
>>SO OUR FARM ALONE HOUSES
AROUND 4 MILLION SALE-READY
ABALONE, AND THAT’S GOING TO USE
ABOUT 150,000 GALLONS OF WATER A
MINUTE.
>>AND WHILE THE WARM
WATERS OFF THE COAST OF HAWAII
ARE GREAT FOR TOURISTS, IT’S NOT
GOOD FOR ABALONE, WHICH
PREFER COLD WATER BUT
BIG ISLAND SHARES ITS WATER
SOURCE WITH A NEIGHBORING CLEAN
ELECTRICAL GENERATOR THAT USES
DEEP WATER.
>>AND THEY RAN THESE
MAGNIFICENT PIPELINES OUT FROM
THIS POINT OUT TO THE OCEAN,
RANGING FROM 100 FEET TO 2000
FEET BELOW.
AND THE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL
WAS ALLOWING US TO TAP INTO THE
TEMPERATURES WE NEED FOR THE
ABALONE.
>>EVEN THOUGH THE WATER
OFF KONA IS CONSIDERED PRISTINE,
BIG ISLAND ABALONE DEVOTES A LOT
OF RESOURCES TO FILTRATION.
THE FARM IS A LIKE CURATED
ECO-SYSTEM CONSTANTLY TRYING TO
CUT DOWN THE THREE YEAR FARM TO
MARKET GROWTH CYCLE, WHILE
MAINTAINING QUALITY.
>>WE’VE ALREADY ACCELERATED THE
TIME FROM THEY’RE BORN TO THE
TIME THEY SETTLE AND START
EATING.
WE’VE TAKEN IT FROM 21 DAYS DOWN
TO ABOUT 8 DAYS.
BUT OF COURSE, OPTIMIZING THEIR
FEED AND THEIR NUTRIENTS,
KEEPING THEIR WATER AT A
CONSISTENT TEMPERATURE.
THAT’S ALL GOING TO ALLOW THEM
AND GIVE THEM ADVANTAGE TO GROW
FASTER.
>>AND GROWING THEM FASTER
GETS THEM TO MARKET FASTER, TO
PLACES AS FAR AWAY AS NEW YORK.
BIG ISLAND’S ABALONE ARE ALMOST
ALWAYS ON THE MENU AT PER SE,
LOCATED IN COLUMBUS CIRCLE, BUT
KNOWN WORLDWIDE FOR ITS 3
MICHELIN STARS.
ABALONE ARE SO EXPENSIVE.
THEY’RE SO PRECIOUS.
WHAT IS IT ABOUT THEM,
CULINARILY, THAT MAKES THEM SUCH
A DELICACY?
>>WELL, WHAT IS IT?
RIGHT?
IT’S A GASTROPOD, ITS A SNAIL.
RIGHT?
A SEA SNAIL —
IS THAT WEIRD?
RIGHT?
BUT I THINK THAT’S WHAT MAKES
DELICACIES, DELICACIES.
RIGHT?
IS THE ODDNESS OF IT.
>>LIKE THE ABALONE HE
SERVES, CHEF COREY CHOW ALSO GOT
HIS CULINARY START IN HAWAII.
HE’S NOW CHEF DE CUISINE AT PER
SE, RESPONSIBLE FOR EVERY PLATE
THAT LEAVES THE KITCHEN.
BUT I HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF
DINING WITH THE CHEF, IN THE
KITCHEN.
CHEF COREY PREPARED A CONFIT
HAWAIIAN ABALONE WITH CREAMED
JAPANESE BLACK SCALLIONS, BLACK
TRUFFLE AND LOVAGE MOUSSE.
THAT IS OUTRAGEOUS.
I CAN’T BELIEVE HOW TENDER IT
IS.
I HAVE HAD IT PREPARED BEFORE.
GRILLED.
IT WAS RUBBERY.
THIS IS SO SOFT.
>>CHEF ALWAYS HAS A PHILOSOPHY
OF ONE KNOWING WHERE YOUR FOOD
COMES FROM, AND TWO SUPPORTING
THE GUYS THAT REALLY TAKE THE
TIME TO TAKE THE CARE FOR THE
PRODUCT AND WHERE THE PRODUCT
IS COMING FROM.
SO THIS ABALONE IS VERY SPECIAL
BECAUSE OF WHERE IT’S FARMED.
THE FARM ITSELF JUST TAKES CARE
OF HOW TO TREAT THE PRODUCT.
>>I’M ANDREW FALZON FOR
SIMPLY SCIENCE ON CUNY TV.
>>OLD MCDONALD MIGHT HAVE
HAD GEESE ON HIS FARM BUT THEY
ARE BECOMING A NUISANCE ON
GOVERNORS ISLAND.
WE SENT OUR INTERN ON A WILD
GOOSE CHASE.
>>GOVERNORS ISLAND IS KNOWN FOR
BEING A TOURIST ATTRACTION, AND
AN ESCAPE FROM THE BUSY STREETS.
BUT THE ISLAND IS FACING A
THREAT, CANADIAN GEESE.

THE WORKING DOGS OF GOVERNORS
ISLAND HAVE COME TO THE RESCUE.
>>WE HAVE FOUR DOGS CURRENTLY.
MAX IS OUR VETERAN.
HE IS NINE YEARS OLD.
QUINN IS THREE YEARS OLD.
CHIP IS ALMOST TWO YEARS OLD.
ASPEN IS JUST ONE-YEAR-OLD.
THEY ARE GROWING AS A TEAM.
SIT DOWN MAX.
>>MOLLIE WORKS CLOSELY WITH
THE WORKING DOGS ON GOVERNORS
ISLAND AND ALSO THE DIRECTOR OF
OPERATIONS PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABILITY.
>>I AM ALSO IN CHARGE OF
THE DOG PROGRAM WHICH IS TO
HELP GEESE AWAY FROM THE ISLAND.
>>THE GEESE PROBLEM ON THE
ISLAND HAS BEEN AN ISSUE SINCE
THE PARK OPENED TO THE PUBLIC IN
2014.
>>CANADA GEESE CAN EAT FOUR
POUNDS OF PLANT MATERIAL EACH
DAY AND THEY ALSO POOP OUT ONE
POUND OF MATERIAL EACH DAY.
HAVING A POPULATION OF 100 GEESE
ON THE ISLAND CAN LEAD TO A LOT
OF MASS AND DOES DAMAGE TO THE
LANDSCAPE.
THEY EAT TURF AND GRASS AND
PLANTS AND THEY CAN SPREAD
INVASIVE SPECIES FROM OTHER
PLACES.
THEY CAN EAT SOMETHING AT
ANOTHER PARK AND FLY HERE AND
SPREAD THOSE SEEDS TO OUR
LANDSCAPE.
THERE IS A GREAT ECOLOGICAL
BENEFIT TO KEEPING THEM OFF THE
ISLAND.

>>THE WILD GOOSE CHASE HAS
BEEN GOING ON FOR A WHILE AND
HAS BEEN A TRIAL AND ERROR
PROCESS.
>>ORIGINALLY WE TRIED ALL KINDS
OF METHODS TO KEEP THE GEESE
AWAY AND THEY WEREN’T VERY
EFFECTIVE.
WE TRIED RC CARS, STROBE LIGHTS,
FLAGS AND OTHER THINGS THAT
BLOCK THEIR POINT OF VIEW BUT
REALLY THE ONLY THING THAT HAS
WORKED IS HAVING THE CONSISTENT
DOG PRESENCE ON THE ISLAND.
>>THESE AREN’T JUST ANY DOGS.
QUINN, CHIP AND MAX ARE BORDER
COLLIES, WELL KNOWN FOR HERDING
TECHNIQUES.
ASPEN IS AN AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD.
>>MAX WAS BROUGHT OUT HERE
FIRST.
HE WAS VERY EFFECTIVE BECAUSE HE
WAS PREVIOUSLY A FARM DOG.
HE IS GREAT WITH A LOT OF
COMMANDS.
HE KNOWS WHICH WAY TO GO LEFT
AND RIGHT.
HE WILL NEVER ACTUALLY CATCH THE
GEESE AND EVEN IF HE DOES, HE
DOESN’T HAVE THE INSTINCT TO
ATTACK THE BIRDS.
THEY ARE A GREAT SPECIES TO HAVE
DOING THIS JOB.
GO MAX, GO.
THEY CREATE THIS — AROUND THE
GEESE AND THE GEESE FLY AWAY.
>>FOR THE DOGS THIS IS
WORK AND THEY ARE TREATED AS
EMPLOYEES.
>>THEY GET VACATIONS, THEY GET
BREAKS, THEY GET TO GO HOME SOME
NIGHTS AND SPEND TIME WITH THEIR
FAMILIES.
BUT THEY KNOW WHEN THEY’RE ON
THE ISLAND, THEY’RE HERE TO
WORK.
>>FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I AM
EUNICE ADEKOYA.
>>AND THAT IS OUR SHOW.
YOU CAN REACH US AT OUR WEBSITE
AND ON FACEBOOK AND YOUTUBE.
SEE YOU NEXT TIME ON SIMPLY
SCIENCE.
I MISSED MY BOAT.
♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪

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